An Improved Third Normal Form for Relational Databases.

Tok Wang Ling, Frank Wm. Tompa, Tiko Kameda: An Improved Third Normal Form for Relational Databases. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 6(2): 329-346(1981)
  author    = {Tok Wang Ling and
               Frank Wm. Tompa and
               Tiko Kameda},
  title     = {An Improved Third Normal Form for Relational Databases},
  journal   = {ACM Trans. Database Syst.},
  volume    = {6},
  number    = {2},
  year      = {1981},
  pages     = {329-346},
  ee        = {, db/journals/tods/LingTK81.html},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


In this paper, we show that some Codd third normal form relations may contain "superfluous" attributes because the definitions of transitive dependency and prime attribute are inadequate when applied to sets of relations. To correct this, an improved third normal form is defined and an algorithm is given to construct a set of relations from a given set of functional dependencies in such a way that the superfluous attributes are guaranteed to be removed. This new normal form is compared with other existing definitions of third normal form, and the deletion normalization method proposed is shown to subsume the decomposition method of normalization.

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Joint ACM SIGMOD / IEEE Computer Society Anthology

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Referenced by

  1. Sin Yeung Lee, Mong-Li Lee, Tok Wang Ling, Leonid A. Kalinichenko: Designing Good Semi-Structured Databases and Conceptual Modeling. ER 1999: 131-145
  2. Joseph Albert, Yannis E. Ioannidis, Raghu Ramakrishnan: Conjunctive Query Equivalence of Keyed Relational Schemas. PODS 1997: 44-50
  3. Vânia Maria Ponte Vidal, Marianne Winslett: A Rigorous Approach to Schema Restructuring. OOER 1995: 101-112
  4. Serge Abiteboul, Richard Hull, Victor Vianu: Foundations of Databases. Addison-Wesley 1995, ISBN 0-201-53771-0
  5. Marie Duzi: Semantic Information Connected with Data. ICDT 1992: 376-390
  6. Tok Wang Ling, Cheng Hian Goh: Logical Database Design with Inclusion Dependencies. ICDE 1992: 642-649
  7. David W. Embley, Tok Wang Ling: Synergistic Database Design with an Extended Entity-Relationship Model. ER 1989: 111-128
  8. Jeffrey D. Ullman: Principles of Database and Knowledge-Base Systems, Volume II. Computer Science Press 1989, ISBN 0-7167-8162-X
  9. Sukhamay Kundu: An Improved Algorithm for Finding a Key of a Relation. PODS 1985: 189-192
  10. Tok Wang Ling: A Normal Form For Entity-Relationship Diagrams. ER 1985: 24-35
  11. Richard Hull: Relative Information Capacity of Simple Relational Database Schemata. PODS 1984: 97-109
  12. Robert Brown, Douglas Stott Parker Jr.: LAURA: A Formal Data Model and her Logical Design Methodology. VLDB 1983: 206-218
  13. David Maier: The Theory of Relational Databases. Computer Science Press 1983, ISBN 0-914894-42-0
  14. Carlo Zaniolo: A New Normal Form for the Design of Relational Database Schemata. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 7(3): 489-499(1982)
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