Altruistic Locking.

Kenneth Salem, Hector Garcia-Molina, Jeannie Shands: Altruistic Locking. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 19(1): 117-165(1994)
  author    = {Kenneth Salem and
               Hector Garcia-Molina and
               Jeannie Shands},
  title     = {Altruistic Locking},
  journal   = {ACM Trans. Database Syst.},
  volume    = {19},
  number    = {1},
  year      = {1994},
  pages     = {117-165},
  ee        = {, db/journals/tods/SalemGS94.html},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


Long-lived transactions (LLTs) hold on to database resources for relatively long periods of time, significantly delaying the completion of shorter and more common transactions. To alleviate this problem we propose an extension to two-phase locking, called altruistic locking, whereby LLTs can release their locks early. Transactions that access this released data are said to run in the wake of the LLT and must follow special locking rules. Like two-phase locking, altruistic locking is easy to implement and guarantees serializability.

Copyright © 1994 by the ACM, Inc., used by permission. Permission to make digital or hard copies is granted provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or direct commercial advantage, and that copies show this notice on the first page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation.

Joint ACM SIGMOD / IEEE Computer Society Anthology

CDROM Version: Load the CDROM "Volume 3 Issue 2, TODS 1991-1995, TKDE 1989-1992" and ... DVD Version: Load ACM SIGMOD Anthology DVD 2" and ... BibTeX

Online Edition: ACM Digital Library

[Abstract, Index Terms and Review]
[Full Text in PDF Format, 2665 KB]


[Agrawal and El Abbadi 1990]
Divyakant Agrawal, Amr El Abbadi: Locks with Constrained Sharing. PODS 1990: 85-93 BibTeX
[Agrawal et al. 1987]
Rakesh Agrawal, Michael J. Carey, Miron Livny: Concurrency Control Performance Modeling: Alternatives and Implications. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 12(4): 609-654(1987) BibTeX
[Agrawal et al. 1991]
Divyakant Agrawal, Amr El Abbadi, A. E. Lang: Performance Characteristics of Protocols With Ordered Shared Locks. ICDE 1991: 592-601 BibTeX
[Ahuja and Browne 1987]
Mohan Ahuja, James C. Browne: Concurrency Control by Pre-Ordering Entities in Databases with Multi-Versioned Entities. ICDE 1987: 312-321 BibTeX
[Badrinath and Ramamritham 1992]
B. R. Badrinath, Krithi Ramamritham: Semantics-Based Concurrency Control: Beyond Commutativity. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 17(1): 163-199(1992) BibTeX
[Bayer 1987]
Rudolf Bayer: Consistency of Transactions and Random Batch. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 11(4): 397-404(1986) BibTeX
[Beeri et al. 1989]
Catriel Beeri, Philip A. Bernstein, Nathan Goodman: A model for concurrency in nested transactions systems. J. ACM 36(2): 230-269(1989) BibTeX
[Bernstein et al. 1987]
Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman: Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems. Addison-Wesley 1987, ISBN 0-201-10715-5
Contents BibTeX
[Breitbart et al. 1991]
Yuri Breitbart, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Marek Rusinkiewicz, Abraham Silberschatz: On Rigorous Transaction Scheduling. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 17(9): 954-960(1991) BibTeX
[Carey and Muhanna 1986]
Michael J. Carey, Waleed A. Muhanna: The Performance of Multiversion Concurrency Control Algorithms. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 4(4): 338-378(1986) BibTeX
[Chan et al. 1982]
Arvola Chan, Stephen Fox, Wen-Te K. Lin, Anil Nori, Daniel R. Ries: The Implementation of an Integrated Concurrency Control and Recovery Scheme. SIGMOD Conference 1982: 184-191 BibTeX
[Eswaran et al. 1976]
Kapali P. Eswaran, Jim Gray, Raymond A. Lorie, Irving L. Traiger: The Notions of Consistency and Predicate Locks in a Database System. Commun. ACM 19(11): 624-633(1976) BibTeX
[Farrag and Özsu 1983]
Abdel Aziz Farrag, M. Tamer Özsu: Using Semantic Knowledge of Transactions to Increase Concurrency. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 14(4): 503-525(1989) BibTeX
[Garcia-Molina 1983]
Hector Garcia-Molina: Using Semantic Knowledge for Transaction Processing in Distributed Database. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 8(2): 186-213(1983) BibTeX
[Garcia-Molina and Salem 1987]
Hector Garcia-Molina, Kenneth Salem: Sagas. SIGMOD Conference 1987: 249-259 BibTeX
[Gifford and Donahue 1982]
[Gray 1981]
Jim Gray: The Transaction Concept: Virtues and Limitations (Invited Paper). VLDB 1981: 144-154 BibTeX
[Hadzilacos 1988]
Vassos Hadzilacos: A theory of reliability in database systems. J. ACM 35(1): 121-145(1988) BibTeX
[Kedem and Silberschatz 1980]
Zvi M. Kedem, Abraham Silberschatz: Non-Two-Phase Locking Protocols with Shared and Exclusive Locks. VLDB 1980: 309-317 BibTeX
[Law and Kelton 1982]
[Raz 1992]
[Reed 1983]
David P. Reed: Implementing Atomic Actions on Decentralized Data. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 1(1): 3-23(1983) BibTeX
[Salem et al. 1987]
Kenneth Salem, Hector Garcia-Molina, Rafael Alonso: Altruistic Locking: A Strategy for Coping with Long Lived Transactions. HPTS 1987: 175-199 BibTeX
[Schwetman 1990]

Referenced by

  1. Alexander Thomasian: Concurrency Control: Methods, Performance, and Analysis. ACM Comput. Surv. 30(1): 70-119(1998)
  2. Alexander Thomasian: A Performance Comparison of Locking Methods with Limited Wait Depth. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 9(3): 421-434(1997)
  3. George T. Heineman, Gail E. Kaiser: The CORD Appraoch to Extensible Concurrency Control. ICDE 1997: 562-571
  4. C. K. Kim, Janusz R. Getta: Concurrency Control in Active Database Systems with Prioritised Rules. ADBIS 1997: 29-34
  5. Paul Ammann, Sushil Jajodia, Padmaja Mavuluri: On-The-Fly Reading of Entire Databases. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 7(5): 834-838(1995)
  6. Vinay K. Chaudhri, Vassos Hadzilacos: Safe Locking Policies for Dynamic Databases. PODS 1995: 233-244
ACM SIGMOD Anthology - DBLP: [Home | Search: Author, Title | Conferences | Journals]
TODS, ACM SIGMOD Anthology: Copyright © by ACM (, Corrections:
DBLP: Copyright © by Michael Ley (, last change: Tue Jun 24 18:39:16 2008