An Extended Disjunctive Normal Form Approach for Optimizing Recursive Logic Queries in Loosely Coupled Environments.

Kyu-Young Whang, Shamkant B. Navathe: An Extended Disjunctive Normal Form Approach for Optimizing Recursive Logic Queries in Loosely Coupled Environments. VLDB 1987: 275-287
  author    = {Kyu-Young Whang and
               Shamkant B. Navathe},
  editor    = {Peter M. Stocker and
               William Kent and
               Peter Hammersley},
  title     = {An Extended Disjunctive Normal Form Approach for Optimizing Recursive
               Logic Queries in Loosely Coupled Environments},
  booktitle = {VLDB'87, Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Very
               Large Data Bases, September 1-4, 1987, Brighton, England},
  publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann},
  year      = {1987},
  isbn      = {0-934613-46-X},
  pages     = {275-287},
  ee        = {db/conf/vldb/WhangN87.html},
  crossref  = {DBLP:conf/vldb/87},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


We present an approach to processing logic queries in loosely coupled environments. We emphasize the importance of the loose coupling technique as a practical solution to provide deductive capabilities to existing DBMSs-especially when an efficient access to a very large database is required in the process of inferencing. We propose the Extended Disjunctive Normal Form (EDNF) as the basis of our approach. The EDNF is an extension of the disjunctive normal form of relational algebra expressions so as to include recursion. The EDNF is well suited for a loosely coupled environment, where an existing DBMS and optimization can be fully exploited. It also serves as a clear, graphical characterization of various recursions that can occur in logic queries. We first present the basic form of the EDNF and then use it as a building block to process a more general class of queries. We extend valid usage of Clark`s negation-as-failure evaluation technique to incorporate negation for most practical situations. We also propose new criteria for safety and termination in the presence of negation. To the extent of the author`s knowledge, optimization in loosely coupled environments has not been seriously addressed in previous research. We believe our technique provides significant progress in this direction.

Copyright © 1987 by the VLDB Endowment. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the VLDB copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by the permission of the Very Large Data Base Endowment. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or special permission from the Endowment.

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Printed Edition

Peter M. Stocker, William Kent, Peter Hammersley (Eds.): VLDB'87, Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, September 1-4, 1987, Brighton, England. Morgan Kaufmann 1987, ISBN 0-934613-46-X
Contents BibTeX


Rakesh Agrawal: Alpha: An Extension of Relational Algebra to Express a Class of Recursive Queries. ICDE 1987: 580-590 BibTeX
Alfred V. Aho, Jeffrey D. Ullman: The Universality of Data Retrieval Languages. POPL 1979: 110-120 BibTeX
Krzysztof R. Apt, Howard A. Blair, Adrian Walker: Towards a Theory of Declarative Knowledge. Foundations of Deductive Databases and Logic Programming. 1988: 89-148 BibTeX
François Bancilhon, Raghu Ramakrishnan: An Amateur's Introduction to Recursive Query Processing Strategies. SIGMOD Conference 1986: 16-52 BibTeX
François Bancilhon, David Maier, Yehoshua Sagiv, Jeffrey D. Ullman: Magic Sets and Other Strange Ways to Implement Logic Programs. PODS 1986: 1-15 BibTeX
Jorge B. Bocca: EDUCE: A Marriage of Convenience: Prolog and a Relational DBMS. SLP 1986: 36-45 BibTeX
Jiazhen Cai, Robert Paige: Binding Performance at Language Design Time. POPL 1987: 85-97 BibTeX
Stefano Ceri, Georg Gottlob, Gio Wiederhold: Interfacing Relational Databases and Prolog Efficiently. Expert Database Conf. 1986: 207-223 BibTeX
Chin-Liang Chang, Adrian Walker: PROSQL: A Prolog Programming Interface with SQL/DS. Expert Database Workshop 1984: 233-246 BibTeX
Keith L. Clark: Negation as Failure. Logic and Data Bases 1977: 293-322 BibTeX
Rakesh Agrawal, Premkumar T. Devanbu: Moving Selections into Linear Least Fixpoint Queries. ICDE 1988: 452-461 BibTeX
M. R. Garey, David S. Johnson: Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman 1979, ISBN 0-7167-1044-7
Lawrence J. Henschen, Shamim A. Naqvi: On compiling queries in recursive first-order databases. J. ACM 31(1): 47-85(1984) BibTeX
Yannis E. Ioannidis: On the Computation of the Transitive Closure of Relational Operators. VLDB 1986: 403-411 BibTeX
Matthias Jarke, James Clifford, Yannis Vassiliou: An Optimizing Prolog Front-End to a Relational Query System. SIGMOD Conference 1984: 296-306 BibTeX
Michael Kifer, Eliezer L. Lozinskii: Filtering Data Flow in Deductive Databases. ICDT 1986: 186-202 BibTeX
Gary A. Kildall: A Unified Approach to Global Program Optimization. POPL 1973: 194-206 BibTeX
Won Kim: On Optimizing an SQL-like Nested Query. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 7(3): 443-469(1982) BibTeX
Eliezer L. Lozinskii: Evaluating Queries in Deductive Databases by Generating. IJCAI 1985: 173-177 BibTeX
Katherine A. Morris, Jeffrey D. Ullman, Allen Van Gelder: Design Overview of the NAIL! System. ICLP 1986: 554-568 BibTeX
Shamim A. Naqvi: Negation as Failure for First-Order Queries. PODS 1986: 114-122 BibTeX
Raymond Reiter: On Closed World Data Bases. Logic and Data Bases 1977: 55-76 BibTeX
Domenico Saccà, Carlo Zaniolo: The Generalized Counting Method for Recursive Logic Queries. ICDT 1986: 31-53 BibTeX
Edward Sciore, David Scott Warren: Towards an Integrated Database-Prolog System. Expert Database Workshop 1984: 293-305 BibTeX
Jeffrey D. Ullman: Implementation of Logical Query Languages for Databases. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 10(3): 289-321(1985) BibTeX
Allen Van Gelder: A Message Passing Framework for Logical Query Evaluation. SIGMOD Conference 1986: 155-165 BibTeX
Laurent Vieille: Recursive Axioms in Deductive Databases: The Query/Subquery Approach. Expert Database Conf. 1986: 253-267 BibTeX
Clement T. Yu, Weining Zhang: Efficient Recursive Query Processing using Wavefront Methods. ICDE 1987: 652-657 BibTeX
Carlo Zaniolo: Safety and Compilation of Non-recursive Horn Clauses. Expert Database Conf. 1986: 237-252 BibTeX
Moshé M. Zloof: Query-by-Example: A Data Base Language. IBM Systems Journal 16(4): 324-343(1977) BibTeX

Referenced by

  1. Philippe De Smedt, Stefano Ceri, Marie-Anne Neimat, Ming-Chien Shan, Rafi Ahmed: Recursive Functions in Iris. ICDE 1993: 145-154
  2. Kyu-Young Whang, Ravi Krishnamurthy: Query Optimization in a Memory-Resident Domain Relational Calculus Database System. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 15(1): 67-95(1990)
  3. Howard W. Beck, Sunit K. Gala, Shamkant B. Navathe: Classification as a Query Processing Technique in the CANDIDE Semantic Data Model. ICDE 1989: 572-581
  4. Kyu-Young Whang, Stephen Brady: A Framework for Optimization in Expert System - DBMS Interface. ICDE 1988: 126-133
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