Mining Generalized Association Rules.

Ramakrishnan Srikant, Rakesh Agrawal: Mining Generalized Association Rules. VLDB 1995: 407-419
  author    = {Ramakrishnan Srikant and
               Rakesh Agrawal},
  editor    = {Umeshwar Dayal and
               Peter M. D. Gray and
               Shojiro Nishio},
  title     = {Mining Generalized Association Rules},
  booktitle = {VLDB'95, Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Very
               Large Data Bases, September 11-15, 1995, Zurich, Switzerland},
  publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann},
  year      = {1995},
  isbn      = {1-55860-379-4},
  pages     = {407-419},
  ee        = {db/conf/vldb/SrikantA95.html},
  crossref  = {DBLP:conf/vldb/95},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


We introduce the problem of mining generalized association rules. Given a large database of transactions, where each transaction consists ofa set of items, and a taxonomy (is-a hierarchy) on the items, we find associations between items at any level of the taxonomy. For example, given a taxonomy that says that jackets is-a outerwearis-a clothes, we may infer a rule that "people who buy outerwear tend to buy shoes". This rule may hold even if rules that "people who buy jackets tend to buy shoes", and "people who buy clothes tend to buy shoes" do not hold. An obvious solution to the problem is to add all ancestors of each item ina transaction to the transaction, and then run any of the algorithms for mining association rules on these "extended transactions". However, this "Basic" algorithm is not very fast; we present two algorithms, Cumulate and EstMerge, which run 2 to 5 times faster than Basic (and more than 100 times faster on one real-life dataset). We also present a new interest-measure for rules which uses the information in the taxonomy. Given a user-specified "minimum-interest-level", this measure prunes a large number of redundant rules; 40% to 60% of all the rules were pruned on two real-life datasets.

Copyright © 1995 by the VLDB Endowment. Permission to copy without fee all or part of this material is granted provided that the copies are not made or distributed for direct commercial advantage, the VLDB copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date appear, and notice is given that copying is by the permission of the Very Large Data Base Endowment. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and/or special permission from the Endowment.

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Printed Edition

Umeshwar Dayal, Peter M. D. Gray, Shojiro Nishio (Eds.): VLDB'95, Proceedings of 21th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, September 11-15, 1995, Zurich, Switzerland. Morgan Kaufmann 1995, ISBN 1-55860-379-4
Contents BibTeX


Rakesh Agrawal, Tomasz Imielinski, Arun N. Swami: Mining Association Rules between Sets of Items in Large Databases. SIGMOD Conference 1993: 207-216 BibTeX
Rakesh Agrawal, Ramakrishnan Srikant: Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules in Large Databases. VLDB 1994: 487-499 BibTeX
Noga Alon, Joel Spencer: The Probabilistic Method. John Wiley 1992, ISBN 0-471-53588-5
Contents BibTeX
Torben Hagerup, Christine Rüb: A Guided Tour of Chernoff Bounds. Inf. Process. Lett. 33(6): 305-308(1990) BibTeX
Maurice A. W. Houtsma, Arun N. Swami: Set-Oriented Mining for Association Rules in Relational Databases. ICDE 1995: 25-33 BibTeX
Heikki Mannila, Hannu Toivonen, A. Inkeri Verkamo: Efficient Algorithms for Discovering Association Rules. KDD Workshop 1994: 181-192 BibTeX
Jong Soo Park, Ming-Syan Chen, Philip S. Yu: An Effective Hash Based Algorithm for Mining Association Rules. SIGMOD Conference 1995: 175-186 BibTeX
Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro: Discovery, Analysis, and Presentation of Strong Rules. Knowledge Discovery in Databases 1991: 229-248 BibTeX
Ramakrishnan Srikant, Rakesh Agrawal: Mining Generalized Association Rules. VLDB 1995: 407-419 BibTeX

Referenced by

  1. Flip Korn, Alexandros Labrinidis, Yannis Kotidis, Christos Faloutsos: Quantifiable Data Mining Using Ratio Rules. VLDB J. 8(3-4): 254-266(2000)
  2. David Gibson, Jon M. Kleinberg, Prabhakar Raghavan: Clustering Categorical Data: An Approach Based on Dynamical Systems. VLDB J. 8(3-4): 222-236(2000)
  3. Themistoklis Palpanas: Knowledge Discovery in Data Warehouses. SIGMOD Record 29(3): 88-100(2000)
  4. Ke Wang, Yu He, Jiawei Han: Mining Frequent Itemsets Using Support Constraints. VLDB 2000: 43-52
  5. Ke Wang, Senqiang Zhou, Shiang Chen Liew: Building Hierarchical Classifiers Using Class Proximity. VLDB 1999: 363-374
  6. Wen-Chi Hou: A Framework for Statistical Data Mining with Summary Tables. SSDBM 1999: 14-23
  7. Laks V. S. Lakshmanan, Raymond T. Ng, Jiawei Han, Alex Pang: Optimization of Constrained Frequent Set Queries with 2-variable Constraints. SIGMOD Conference 1999: 157-168
  8. Philip S. Yu: Data Mining and Personalization Technologies. DASFAA 1999: 6-13
  9. Holger Günzel, Jens Albrecht, Wolfgang Lehner: Data Mining in a Multidimensional Environment. ADBIS 1999: 191-204
  10. Jiawei Han: Towards On-Line Analytical Mining in Large Databases. SIGMOD Record 27(1): 97-107(1998)
  11. Charu C. Aggarwal, Philip S. Yu: Mining Large Itemsets for Association Rules. IEEE Data Eng. Bull. 21(1): 23-31(1998)
  12. Sridhar Ramaswamy, Sameer Mahajan, Abraham Silberschatz: On the Discovery of Interesting Patterns in Association Rules. VLDB 1998: 368-379
  13. Flip Korn, Alexandros Labrinidis, Yannis Kotidis, Christos Faloutsos: Ratio Rules: A New Paradigm for Fast, Quantifiable Data Mining. VLDB 1998: 582-593
  14. Takahiko Shintani, Masaru Kitsuregawa: Parallel Mining Algorithms for Generalized Association Rules with Classification Hierarchy. SIGMOD Conference 1998: 25-36
  15. Sunita Sarawagi, Shiby Thomas, Rakesh Agrawal: Integrating Mining with Relational Database Systems: Alternatives and Implications. SIGMOD Conference 1998: 343-354
  16. Raymond T. Ng, Laks V. S. Lakshmanan, Jiawei Han, Alex Pang: Exploratory Mining and Pruning Optimizations of Constrained Association Rules. SIGMOD Conference 1998: 13-24
  17. Charu C. Aggarwal, Philip S. Yu: A New Framework For Itemset Generation. PODS 1998: 18-24
  18. Ashok Savasere, Edward Omiecinski, Shamkant B. Navathe: Mining for Strong Negative Associations in a Large Database of Customer Transactions. ICDE 1998: 494-502
  19. Rajeev Rastogi, Kyuseok Shim: Mining Optimized Association Rules with Categorical and Numeric Attributes. ICDE 1998: 503-512
  20. Banu Özden, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Abraham Silberschatz: Cyclic Association Rules. ICDE 1998: 412-421
  21. Charu C. Aggarwal, Philip S. Yu: Online Generation of Association Rules. ICDE 1998: 402-411
  22. Dao-I Lin, Zvi M. Kedem: Pincer Search: A New Algorithm for Discovering the Maximum Frequent Set. EDBT 1998: 105-119
  23. Tomasz Imielinski, Aashu Virmani: Association Rules... and What's Next? Towards Second Generation Data Mining Systems. ADBIS 1998: 6-25
  24. Renée J. Miller, Yuping Yang: Association Rules over Interval Data. SIGMOD Conference 1997: 452-461
  25. Eui-Hong Han, George Karypis, Vipin Kumar: Scalable Parallel Data Mining for Association Rules. SIGMOD Conference 1997: 277-288
  26. Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, Jeffrey D. Ullman, Shalom Tsur: Dynamic Itemset Counting and Implication Rules for Market Basket Data. SIGMOD Conference 1997: 255-264
  27. Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, Craig Silverstein: Beyond Market Baskets: Generalizing Association Rules to Correlations. SIGMOD Conference 1997: 265-276
  28. Tadeusz Morzy, Maciej Zakrzewicz: SQL-Like Language for Database Mining. ADBIS 1997: 311-317
  29. David Wai-Lok Cheung, Vincent T. Y. Ng, Ada Wai-Chee Fu, Yongjian Fu: Efficient Mining of Association Rules in Distributed Databases. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 8(6): 911-922(1996)
  30. Ming-Syan Chen, Jiawei Han, Philip S. Yu: Data Mining: An Overview from a Database Perspective. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 8(6): 866-883(1996)
  31. Rakesh Agrawal, John C. Shafer: Parallel Mining of Association Rules. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 8(6): 962-969(1996)
  32. Hannu Toivonen: Sampling Large Databases for Association Rules. VLDB 1996: 134-145
  33. Rosa Meo, Giuseppe Psaila, Stefano Ceri: A New SQL-like Operator for Mining Association Rules. VLDB 1996: 122-133
  34. Ramakrishnan Srikant, Rakesh Agrawal: Mining Quantitative Association Rules in Large Relational Tables. SIGMOD Conference 1996: 1-12
  35. David Wai-Lok Cheung, Jiawei Han, Vincent T. Y. Ng, C. Y. Wong: Maintenance of Discovered Association Rules in Large Databases: An Incremental Updating Technique. ICDE 1996: 106-114
  36. Ramakrishnan Srikant, Rakesh Agrawal: Mining Sequential Patterns: Generalizations and Performance Improvements. EDBT 1996: 3-17
  37. Ramakrishnan Srikant, Rakesh Agrawal: Mining Generalized Association Rules. VLDB 1995: 407-419
  38. Jiawei Han: Mining Knowledge at Multiple Concept Levels. CIKM 1995: 19-24
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