Human Factors Comparison of a Procedural and a Nonprocedural Query Language.

Charles Welty, David W. Stemple: Human Factors Comparison of a Procedural and a Nonprocedural Query Language. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 6(4): 626-649(1981)
  author    = {Charles Welty and
               David W. Stemple},
  title     = {Human Factors Comparison of a Procedural and a Nonprocedural
               Query Language},
  journal   = {ACM Trans. Database Syst.},
  volume    = {6},
  number    = {4},
  year      = {1981},
  pages     = {626-649},
  ee        = {, db/journals/tods/WeltyS81.html},
  bibsource = {DBLP,}


Two experiments testing the ability of subjects to write queries in two different query languages were run. The two languages, SQL and TABLET, differ primarily in their procedurality; both languages use the relational data model, and their Halstead levels are similar. Constructs in the languages which do not affect their procedurality are identical. The two languages were learned by the experimental subjects almost exclusively from manuals presenting the same examples and problems ordered identically for both languages. The results of the experiments show that subjects using the more procedural language wrote difficult queries better than subjects using the less procedural language. The results of the experiments are also used to compare corresponding constructs in the two languages and to recommend improvements for these constructs.

Copyright © 1981 by the ACM, Inc., used by permission. Permission to make digital or hard copies is granted provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or direct commercial advantage, and that copies show this notice on the first page or initial screen of a display along with the full citation.

Joint ACM SIGMOD / IEEE Computer Society Anthology

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Referenced by

  1. Vincent Y. Lum, F. W. Lee, S. K. Fong: A Query Interface Truly for Chinese Users. DASFAA 1995: 138-148
  2. Gary C. K. Lam, Vincent Y. Lum, Kam-Fai Wong: On the Issues of Expressiveness and Portability of Chiql. DASFAA 1995: 164-171
  3. Alfs T. Berztiss: The Query Language Vizla. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 5(5): 813-825(1993)
  4. John E. Bell, Lawrence A. Rowe: An Exploratory Study of Ad Hoc Query Languages to Databases. ICDE 1992: 606-613
  5. Matthias Jarke, Yannis Vassiliou: A Framework for Choosing a Database Query Language. ACM Comput. Surv. 17(3): 313-340(1985)
  6. Jeffrey D. Ullman: On Kent's "Consequences of Assuming a Universal Relation". ACM Trans. Database Syst. 8(4): 637-643(1983)
  7. Robert J. Muller: Using Statistical Software with a Database Management Data Theory. SSDBM 1983: 414-423
  8. V. A. Brown, Shamkant B. Navathe, Stanley Y. W. Su: Complex Data Types and a Data Manipulation Language for Scientific and Statistical Databases. SSDBM 1983: 188-195
  9. Charles Welty, David W. Stemple: Reply. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 7(2): 317-318(1982)
  10. Donald D. Chamberlin: On "Human Factors Comparison of a Procedural and a Nonprocedural Query Language". ACM Trans. Database Syst. 7(2): 316-317(1982)
  11. Sheldon J. Finkelstein: Common Subexpression Analysis in Database Applications. SIGMOD Conference 1982: 235-245
  12. James J. Thomas: The Impact of Large Data Sets on Interaction Style for Data Manipulation Languages. SSDBM 1981: 157-159
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